Fair Trade is a good tool for Sustainable Development. The 10 principles for Fair Trade reflects the ecological-social-economic aspects of Sustainable Development. Crafts can meet high ecological criteria e.g. materials and production, high social standards e.g. gender equality, high economic standards e.g. value added. Madagascar has one of the world’s highest percentage of extreme poverty (ca 80%). At the same time, it has a rich and unique flora and fauna to preserve. Madagascar is one of the world’s “biodiversity hotspots”. In this context, Fair Trade crafts stands out as an exceptionally good choice.
Global Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 At a UN summit 25-27 September 2015, world leaders decided on 17 Global Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for 2030. (Image to the left) These goals replace the 8 Millennium Development Goals decided for the period 2000-2015.
Fair Trade is a good tool for sustainable development. For example, Fair Trade principle number 1 is “Creating opportunities for economically marginalized producers”. It is perfectly in line with SDG number 1 No poverty. Fair Trade principle number 10”Respect for the environment” reflects SDG 12 Responsible consumption and production as well as 13 Climate action and 15 Life on land. Another example is Fair Trade principle number 6, which is reflected by SDG 5 Gender equality. Finally, Fair Trade practice in its daily work and at grass root level SDG 17: Partnership for the goals.
Sustainable Development Goal number 1: No poverty According to the World Bank, 10.3% of the world's population lived in extreme poverty (below USD 1.9 /day) in 2013. This represents a significant improvement since 1990, when the rate of extremely poor was 34.8%. However, there is a concentration of global poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank's map (left) shows the percent population in extreme poverty. The colour indicates the proportion of the population living in extreme poverty: dark green countries have the largest proportion (42-94%) extremely poor, light green countries have less (16.5-42%), yellow have less (3.77-16.5% ), orange have even less 1.03-3.77% and the least proportion (0-1.03%) has red. Grey colour means no data.
Madagascar is the country in the world that, according to the World Bank's Poverty data, has the largest share (77.84%) of the population in extreme poverty.
Aggravated Poverty: Madagascar is one of the few countries in the world where real GDP per capita was less in 2010 than 1960. GDP per capita in 2010 had decreased by more than 40%. Only two countries (Liberia and Democratic Republic of the Congo, both of whom had periods of civil war) show a larger decline in GDP per capita. As a result, Madagascar is ranked as the poorest country in sub-Saharan Africa (and in the world) where internationally comparable data are available. Reference "Shifting Fortunes and Enduring Poverty in Madagascar - Recent Findings. World Bank June 2016 " Madagascar has been in a deep political and economic crisis starting in 2009 and has suffered from several difficult cyclones in recent years. The combination has had a major impact on the economy as a whole and perhaps the worst for the poorest and most marginalized in society. The infrastructure, such as Roads and power supply has deteriorated dramatically. In the Africa Competitiveness Report 2017, Madagascar has the bottom rank (ranked 138 out of 138 countries included) regarding road quality. In the World Bank report "Doing Business 2017", Madagascar is ranked 185 (out of 190 counted countries) regarding access to electricity. These reports also state that political instability and weak institutions are significant barriers to growth and development. In March 2017, Madagascar was hit by the cyclone Enawo. The cyclone had wind speed up to 230km / h and crossed a large part of the country. It was the worst cyclone land experienced in 13 years.
At the same time, Madagascar has one of the richest and most unique flora and fauna in the world to preserve. Madagascar is, together with the smaller surrounding islands, one of the world’s “biodiversity hotspots”. Here below some figures to describe an ..immeasurable value.
With reference to CEPF website: Plants: Vascular plants total at least 13,000 species (possibly as many as 16,000), of which about 90 percent are found nowhere else in the world. 8 of at least 160 plant families found here are endemic, a level unmatched by any other hotspot. Mammals: About 90 percent of the more than 150 mammal species that live on Madagascar (and the surrounding Indian Ocean islands) are endemic. In addition, new species are being discovered at a rapid rate (22 new mammal species and subspecies on Madagascar the last 15 years). The most well-known mammals of Madagascar are the lemurs, represented by five families unique to this island. 72 species and subspecies of lemurs makes Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands a Hotspot world leader in primate endemism. Birds: More than 300 bird species are regularly found in the hotspot, nearly 60 percent of which are found nowhere else on the planet. Reptiles: 96 percent of nearly 400 reptile species are found nowhere else on earth. Amphibians: Two endemic families of amphibians: the Sooglossidae, found in the Seychelles and the Mantellidae, found on Madagascar and Mayotte. 229 of the 230 present spices are endemic.